What is the 4Kscore Test?
The 4Kscore Test helps clarify the biopsy decision-making process by determining a patient specific probability for finding aggressive, Gleason score 7 or higher prostate cancer upon biopsy. These are the aggressive prostate cancers that always require medical treatment or intervention. The 4Kscore Test relies on the measurement of four prostate-specific kallikreins in the blood: Total PSA, Free PSA, Intact PSA, and Human Kallikrein 2 (hK2). The blood test results are combined in an algorithm with patient age, digital rectal exam (nodules, no nodules), and prior negative biopsy (yes, no) to give physicians a personal score for each patient. The 4Kscore Test predicts the risk percent score from <1% to >95% of a man having aggressive cancer in a prospective biopsy.
PSA testing on its own has been shown to result in a high number of unnecessary biopsies. By providing information to improve decision making before ordering a prostate biopsy, the 4Kscore Test can help avoid an unnecessary prostate biopsy and its associated complications, and costs for men at low risk of having an aggressive cancer, while still identifying men at high-risk for having an aggressive prostate cancer. Depending on the 4Kscore result, Urologists can choose to either place a low-risk patient under active monitoring, or perform a biopsy on a high-risk patient.
The 4Kscore Test has undergone extensive clinical research and laboratory test validation. The biomarkers utilized in the 4Kscore Test are based on over a decade of research conducted by scientists at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and leading research centers in Europe, encompassing over 10,000 patients. The results have recently been replicated in a prospective blinded clinical study conducted at 26 urology centers across the United States on 1,012 patients. Based on the results of this clinical study, as many as 30-58% of biopsies are avoidable using the 4Kscore Test.
How do I know whether I have aggressive prostate cancer?